The most abundant metal available in the earth’s crust is Aluminum. Approximately 8.3% by weight Al is available. Cleaning of the ore to remove the other particles like sand, clay, etc. from the ore is termed as dressing of ore or concentration of ore. All such processes are done by steps like Hydraulic washing, Magnetic separation, froth floatation method, Leaching. This was chapter deals with many such properties and principles for isolation of elements. Class 12 chemistry chapter 6 are very interesting as well as essential for the students of chemistry.
In this chapter, the student will get to know many terms such as concentration, benefaction, calcination, roasting, refining, etc. They will understand the methodologies of oxidation and reduction which are useful within the extraction procedures. Students will easily be able to apply the thermodynamic concepts for the extraction of elements like Aluminum, Copper, Zinc, etc.
Moreover, the student will understand why CO is a favourable reducing agent only at some specific temperatures. Thus in total, this Chapter of Chemistry will be helpful for the student to understand the several chemical processes associated with the metallurgy. This chapter will also create the necessary and strong base for students about metallurgy. Along with the various conceptual contents this chapter is also containing many examples, questions, and conceptual solutions.
Some main subtopics of this chapter are Occurrence of Metals, Concentration of Ores, Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore, Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy, Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy, Oxidation-Reduction, Refining and Uses of Aluminum, Copper, Zinc, and Iron.
Although the modern metallurgy had seen the exponential growth after the Industrial Revolution. But, many modern concepts in metallurgy are having their roots from the ancient practices that predated the Industrial Revolution. Thus for more than 7000 years, India also had a high tradition of metallurgical skills. During ancient times Indian metallurgists have made major contributions and that deserve their place in the metallurgical history of the world.
In the case of zinc and the high–carbon steel, India in old times had contributed significantly to the development of base for the modern metallurgical system.
We require metals for a variety of purposes. Therefore we need to extract them from the minerals in which they can exist. A metal can exist in the metallic form, either as a pure metal or as an alloy. Alloys are a mixture of two or more elements in which the major component is mental. Its main idea is to make the alloy. Some of such alloys are stainless steel, cast iron, alloy steel, etc.
Ore is the naturally occurring material and forms this a metal can be extracted. Through mining, these are extracted from the earth. Students will learn the steps of the basic extraction of ore deposits. In general ores is solid material from which a pure metal can be obtained. This process of removal of unwanted material from the ore is termed as Concentration or Dressing or Benefaction of the ores. The chapter will also explain about Hydraulic Washing, Magnetic Separation, Froth Floatation Process etc.